C-INDEX OF MEDICATIONS & MEDICAL TERMS

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION 

 It is possible to reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease by eliminating the risk factors you can control and managing the risk factors you cannot control. Making the appropriate lifestyle changes can help to lower your risk of cardiovascular disease. This includes not smoking, developing a healthier diet, calculating calories, and understanding and remaining aware of cholesterol intake.  

CARDIAC DIAGNOSTIC TESTS 

New and advanced diagnostic tests and tools are constantly being introduced to further our understanding of the complexity of disease, injury, and congenital (present at birth) or acquired abnormalities. The following are just a few of the diagnostic tests that have been used or are being used to further understand and identify cardiovascular disease: ECG, Cardiac Stress Test, Chest Radiography, CT Scan, Cardiac Monitoring. For more specific information, consult your cardiologist or other health care provider. 

CARDIAC REHABILITATION 

What is cardiac rehabilitation? It is a doctor-supervised program for people who have most kinds of heart disease. Program participants may or may not have had a heart attack or heart surgery (or other heart procedures). Cardiac rehabilitation can often improve functional capacity, reduce symptoms, and create a sense of well-being for patients. What conditions may benefit from cardiac rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation program is designed to meet the needs of most cardiac patients. Talk to your doctor to find a rehabilitation program that works for you.  

CLINICAL GUIDELINES FOR HEART FAILURE 

 To receive the best care for heart failure, talking frankly with your health care team is a good place to start. It’s also helpful to know about a resource published by health experts that outlines treatment plans recommended for patients with chronic heart failure. Since 1980, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association have jointly published clinical guidelines to help health care providers create good care plans for their patients. The guidelines change frequently, so ensure that your healthcare provider is working from the most recent list.  

CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION 

 Cardiac catheterization is performed to further evaluate coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure, and/or certain congenital (present at birth) heart conditions, such as atrial septal defect or ventricular septal defect, when other less invasive types of diagnostic tests indicate the presence of one of these conditions. 

CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT SURGERY (CABG) 

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a procedure used to treat coronary artery disease in certain circumstances. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the narrowing of the coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle), caused by a buildup of fatty material within the walls of the arteries. This buildup causes strain on the arteries, which can lead to a variety of complications.  

CAROTID ARTERY DUPLEX SCAN 

A carotid artery duplex scan is a type of vascular ultrasound study done to assess the blood flow of the arteries that supply blood from the heart through the neck to the brain. There are 2 carotid arteries, each of which divides into 2 more: the right internal and external carotid arteries and the left internal and external carotid arteries. 

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT OR CAT) SCAN OF THE CHEST 

Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays. This is often used to assess cardiac health.  

COARCTATION OF THE AORTA 

Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect involving a narrowing of the aorta. The aorta is the large artery that carries oxygen-rich (red) blood from the left ventricle to the body. It is shaped like a candy cane. The first section moves up towards the head (ascending aorta), then curves in a C-shape as smaller arteries that are attached to it carry blood to the head and arms (aortic arch).  

COPD: CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE 

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, also known as COPD, is an umbrella term used to describe a set of progressive lung diseases. Those diseases include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and refractory, or non-reversible, asthma. The disease is often characterized by breathlessness, which increases as the disease progresses.  

COPD: SAFE OXYGEN TIPS 

If you use oxygen to help manage the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), be sure to handle it with care. It’s essential to follow these safety tips: Don’t smoke while using oxygen, and don’t let anyone smoke near you. Put up no smoking signs in your home where you most often use the oxygen. Stay at least 5 feet away from any open flame, such as a gas stove, candle, or cigarette lighter. Don’t use oil-based products such as creams and lotions that contain petroleum.  

COPD: THE BENEFITS OF MINI-MEALS 

The muscles you use to breathe have to work harder because you have COPD. They use more energy so you need may need to eat more calories to supply the energy they need and to keep your muscles from becoming weaker. Ask your health care provider what your weight should be and how many calories you should eat each day. Weight loss is common in people who have COPD. You should see your health care provider if you lose more that 10 percent of your weight in six months. 

COPD: END-OF-LIFE CARE 

Many people have not talked with their loved ones about how they’d like to be cared for at the end of their lives. It’s an important talk to have, especially for those living with a chronic disease. What kind of care would you want if you were no longer able to speak for yourself? If you developed severe breathing problems, would you want to be placed on a ventilator, or a machine that breaths for you? It’s not easy to talk about end-of-life issues. Let your family know that by talking to them and becoming comfortable with your diagnosis. 

CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTION IN CHILDREN 

Campylobacter is a bacterium that can cause a mild to serious intestinal infection called campylobacteriosis. Symptoms often include cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. The campylobacter bacteria mostly affect infants, teenagers, and young adults. The CDC estimates that over 1.3 million cases of campylobacter occur in the U.S. each year. However, this is just an estimate because most of the cases go undiagnosed and unreported. 

CAT SCRATCH DISEASE IN CHILDREN 

Cat scratch disease is an illness that can occur after being bitten or scratched by a cat. It is caused when the Bartonella henselae bacteria carried by cats gets under the skin in a human. Cats, and especially kittens, become infected with the cat scratch bacteria from fleas. But fleas probably do not spread the bacteria to humans. Cats that are carrying the bacteria don’t get sick and don’t need to be treated. Cat scratch disease often goes away on its own in 2 to 4 months. 

CROUP 

Croup is a disease that causes swelling in the airways and problems breathing. Children with croup often have a high-pitched “creaking” or whistling sound when breathing in. This is called stridor. Croup is most commonly caused by a virus. It is sometimes, but rarely, caused by bacteria, allergies, or reflux from the stomach. Several viruses are known to cause croup, including Parainfluenza virus, Respiratory syncytial virus, (RSV) Influenza virus, and Adenovirus Enteroviruses. 

CHEMOTHERAPY FOR CHILDREN: SIDE EFFECTS 

Chemotherapy is one form of treatment for cancer, with some possible side effects that require clinical care by a doctor or other health care professional. There are some common side effects that children may experience more than adults. They include alopecia, mucositis, and bone marrow suppression.  

CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES 

There are many different types of chromosome abnormalities that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Some include Down Syndrome, Turner Syndrome, and Edward’s syndrome.  

CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION INDEX 

Immunizations, also called vaccinations, are a set of shots given to infants and children at different ages to help keep them from developing dangerous childhood diseases. The diseases vaccinations protect against have serious complications and can even be fatal. Making sure your child receives immunizations when scheduled is the best way to help protect your child.  

CHICKENPOX 

Chickenpox is a highly infectious disease that usually occurs during childhood. By adulthood, more than 90% of Americans have had chickenpox. Since the mid-1990s, most children have been vaccinated against the infection. The disease is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a form of the herpes virus. Transmission occurs from person-to-person by direct contact or through the air by coughing or sneezing. 

CARDIOMYOPATHY AND YOUR CHILD 

Cardiomyopathy is disease of the heart muscle that reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood effectively. Different kinds of cardiomyopathy cause the heart muscle to enlarge, thicken, or become stiff. Cardiomyopathy can be due to a number of causes, including viral infections and certain medications. It can also be inherited. Often, the exact cause of the muscle disease is never found. Cardiomyopathy can lead to irregular heart rhythms or heart failure. 

DELAYED PUBERTY 

Puberty is said to be delayed when physical signs do not appear by age 13 for girls or age 14 for boys. Delayed puberty may run in families. However, delayed puberty may also be due to chromosomal abnormalities, genetic disorders, chronic illnesses, or tumors that damage the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus in the brain, which make hormones that regulate sexual maturation.