ANATOMY

ANATOMY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUTH AND TEETH

Teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth. The mother’s diet should have adequate amounts of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C, and vitamin D. Certain medications, such as tetracycline, should not be taken by the mother while she is pregnant as these can cause discoloration to the developing teeth of the embryo. There are four main stages of development of the tooth.

ANATOMY OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN CHILDREN

The following are integral parts of the endocrine system: Hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is located in the brain, near the optic chiasm. It secretes hormones that stimulate or suppress the release of hormones in the pituitary gland, in addition to controlling water balance, sleep, temperature, appetite, and blood pressure. Pineal body. The pineal body is located below the corpus callosum, in the middle of the brain.

ANATOMY OF THE SKIN

The skin is the body’s largest organ, covering the entire body. In addition to serving as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection, the skin also: Regulates body temperature Stores water and fat Is a sensory organ Prevents water loss Prevents entry of bacteria Throughout the body, the skin’s characteristics vary (for example, thickness, color, and texture). For instance, the head contains more hair follicles than anywhere else on the body.

ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Respiration is the act of breathing: Inhaling (inspiration). The act of breathing in oxygen. Exhaling (expiration). The act of breathing out carbon dioxide. Respiratory system Respiratory System – Click to Enlarge The respiratory system is made up of the organs involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and consists of the: Nose Mouth Pharynx (throat) Larynx (voice box) Trachea (windpipe) Bronchi (large airways) Lungs.

ANATOMY OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs. It uses hormones to control and coordinate your body’s internal metabolism (or homeostasis), energy level, reproduction, growth and development, and response to injury, stress, and environmental factors. The following are integral parts of the endocrine system: Hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain, near the optic chiasm.

ANATOMY AND FUNCTION OF THE HEART VALVES

What are heart valves? The heart consists of four chambers, two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers). Blood passes through a valve before leaving each chamber of the heart. The valves prevent the backward flow of blood. Valves are actually flaps (leaflets) that act as one-way inlets for blood coming into a ventricle and one-way outlets for blood leaving a ventricle.

ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN CHILDREN

What is respiration? Respiration is the act of breathing in and breathing out. When you inhale, you take in oxygen. When you exhale, you give off carbon dioxide. What makes up the respiratory system? The respiratory system is made up of the organs involved in the interchanges of gases and consists of the: Nose Mouth Throat (pharynx) Voice box (larynx) Windpipe (trachea) Airways (bronchi) and Lungs.

ANATOMY AND FUNCTION OF THE CORONARY ARTERIES

Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. Like all other tissues in the body, the heart muscle needs oxygen-rich blood to function, and oxygen-depleted blood must be carried away. The coronary arteries run along the outside of the heart and have small branches that dive into the heart muscle to bring it blood. What are the different coronary arteries? The two main coronary arteries are the left main and right coronary arteries.

ANATOMY AND FUNCTION OF THE HEART’S ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

The heart’s electrical system The heart is, in the simplest terms, a pump made up of muscle tissue. Like all muscle, the heart requires a source of energy and oxygen in order to function. The heart’s pumping action is regulated by an electrical conduction system that coordinates the contraction of the various chambers of the heart. How does the heart beat? An electrical stimulus is generated by the sinus node.

ANATOMY OF THE BREASTS

Each breast has 15 to 20 sections, called lobes, that are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are all linked by thin tubes called ducts. These ducts lead to the nipple in the center of a dark area of skin called the areola. Fat fills the spaces between lobules and ducts. There are no muscles in the breast.